— William S. Burroughs
Growth in the crime rates in India and other parts of world have increased the need for policing. Law enforcement agencies in India are controlled by Ministry of Home Affairs and these law enforcement agencies are headed by IPS ( Indian Police Services) officers. Law and order in the states and territories is maintained and all routine policing is carried out by state-level police forces.
At state, national and international level there are Police Officers/Detectives. They enforce laws, catch criminals, collect evidence and testify in court. There is Criminal Investigation Department (CID) whose main role is to investigate serious crime and to act upon intelligence, which can lead to the arrest and prosecution of persistent offenders. There is Firearms Unit, They are trained in the use of firearms and are drafted in to support operations, which require armed assistance. Career in police as firearms is also becoming very demanding and officer have to risk his or her life while saving the others. There is also a Fraud Investigation Unit which deals with company business fraud, major deceptions and corruption allegations, and also provides assistance and guidance for area detectives on various matters pertaining to fraud investigation. Then there is Special Branch in police officers jobs primarily to acquire intelligence for the protection of national security, in particular protection against terrorism, espionage, sabotage, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and from actions intended to overthrow democracy by political, industrial or violent means. There is Traffic Unit that keeps the constant vigil on the traffic. They ensure road safety by enforcing traffic laws, including those relating to speeding and drink driving. There are also Forensic Experts who help in investigation of cases.
There are some related occupations to police and various other forces are like Central Police Forces CPF, Central Industrial Security Force CISF, Various state police and Border Police.
The state police is responsible for maintaining law and order in townships of the state and the rural areas. States get their police force trained by advanced police training schools. State-level police forces are separate and may differ in terms of the quality of equipment and resources, their patterns of organization and operation are markedly similar. A Director-general or inspector general, answerable to the home secretary of the state, heads each state, union territory, or national capital territory police force. Under the inspector general are a number of police ""ranges"" composed of three to six districts, headed by deputy inspectors general. District police headquarters are commanded by superintendents. District superintendents have wide discretionary powers and are responsible for overseeing subordinate police stations as well as specialty elements, such as criminal investigation detachments, equipment storehouses and armories, and traffic police. Many large districts also have several assistant district superintendents. Most preventive police work is carried out by constables assigned to police stations. In most states and territories, police forces are functionally divided into civil (unarmed) police and armed contingents. The former staff police stations, conduct investigations, answer routine complaints, perform traffic duties, and patrol the streets. They usually carry lathis—bamboo staffs weighted or tipped with iron.
Contingents of armed police are divided into two groups, the district armed police and the Provincial Armed Constabulary. They are assigned to police stations and perform guard and escort duties. Those states that maintain distinct armed contingents employ them as a reserve strike force for emergencies. Such units are organized either as a mobile armed force under direct state control or in the case of district armed police (who are not as well equipped) as a force directed by district superintendents and generally used for riot-control duty.
The Provincial Armed Constabulary (Pradeshik) is an armed reserve maintained at key locations in some states and active only on orders from the deputy inspector general and higher-level authorities. Armed constabulary are not usually in contact with the public until they are assigned to VIP duty or assigned to maintain order during fairs, festivals, athletic events, elections, and natural disasters. They may also be sent to quell outbreaks of student or labor unrest, organized crime, and communal riots; to maintain key guard posts; and to participate in anti-terrorist operations. Depending on the type of assignment, the Provincial Armed Constabulary may carry only lathis .
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